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The prevalence of Concussion, also referred to as Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), in sport activities has received increased attention in popular media and by various sports leagues and organizations at all levels in recent months. This increase in attention is justified as the seriousness of Concussion injuries and the safe and effective management of Return-to-Play protocols has a significant correlation to sport participation levels and the health of the young men and women who compete in them.

Performance Training Systems has developed this Concussion dedicated page in accordance with points 1 and 6 of our Mission Statement which is to i) provide aspiring athletes with sport performance training through a multi-disciplinary team of sport science, sport psychology, exercise nutrition, strength & conditioning, and rehabilitation professionals, and xi) To nurture our athletes physical, psychosocial, and athletic development, in bringing them to a higher level of competition and athletic performance.

Performance Training Systems feels an ethical and social responsibility to provide our athletes, their coaches and parents with the resources they need to guard against Sport Concussion Injuries and to develop and monitor effective and safe athlete specific Return-to-Sport programs.

We hope you find the information on this site helpful, and encourage your feedback to help us make this page better.
What is a Concussion PTS Position Statement on Sport Concussion
The 2008 Consensus on Concussions, drafted at the Zurich Symposium on Concussions in Sport, defines a Concussion as a complex patho-physiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces. In lay terms, a concussion is caused by trauma to the head. The symposium delegates agreed that several common features that incorporate clinical, pathologic and biomechanical injury constructs may be utilized in defining the nature of a concussive head injury, and they include:
1. Concussion may be caused either by a direct blow to the head, face, neck or elsewhere on the body with an ''impulsive'' force transmitted to the head.
2. Concussion typically results in the rapid onset of short-lived impairment of neurologic function that resolves spontaneously.
3. Concussion may result in neuro-pathological changes, but the acute clinical symptoms largely reflect a functional disturbance rather than a structural injury.
4. Concussion results in a graded set of clinical symptoms that may or may not involve loss of consciousness. Resolution of the clinical and cognitive symptoms typically follows a sequential course; however, it is important to note that, in a small percentage of cases, post-concussive symptoms may be prolonged.
5. No abnormality on standard structural neuro-imaging studies is seen in concussion.
'Getting Your Head in the Game' - A Position Paper on Sport Concussion and Effective Return-to-Sport Management. Download Here
Sport Specific Resources
Ice Hockey
Hockey Canada Concussion Card Download here
Ski / Snowboard
Return to Snow Sports Post Concussion: FIS Medical Committee Download Here
Baseball / Softball
MLB & MLBPA Announce new Concussion Policy Download Here
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 Concussion Quick Stats On-Field Diagnosis / Treatment  
Over 350,000 Sport Concussions occur in North America annually.

If playing a contact sport you have a 19% chance of sustaining a Sports Concussion.

The IOC's Medical Commission released a post 2010 Winter Games report stating 20 Concussions occurred during the Games in Vancouver.

Males between the ages of 15-35 are 2 times as likely to sustain a concussion than women of the same age.

The American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine report  3-5% of all high school injuries are concussions.

More than 62,000 concussions are sustained each year in high-school contact sports. Among college football players, 34% have had one and 20%, multiple concussions.

Typical recovery time is 2-3 weeks, with 75% symptom free by 3 months.

Research is now beginning to draw links between concussion and brain disease.
The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2, also known as the SCAT Card is a document endorsed by FIFA, the IIHF, the International Olympic Committee and the International Rugby Board for assessing potential on-field concussion injuries.
PTS recommends that all teams have at least 2 coaches or staff members who are familiar with this checklist style questionnaire. Download Here

Resources for the Athlete & Coach
Methods for On-Field Diagnosis and Screening. Download Here
Concussion Symptoms
Concussion related symptoms are categorized in 3 Clinical Domains and include the following.  A Concussion can be suspected when only 1 of these symptoms are present.
- Confusion
- Post-Traumatic Amnesia
- Retro-Grade Amnesia
- Loss of Consciousness
- Disoriented
- Feeling in a 'Fog'
- Vacant Stare
- Inability to Focus
- Delayed motor control
- Slurred speech
- Drowsiness
- Headache
- Fatigue
- Disequilibrium
- Nausea / Vomiting
- Visual Disturbances
- Emotional lability
- Irritability
  A sample Return-to-Sport Policy for Sports Teams and Organizations
In addition to single or repetitive hits to the head, there is a reported link between whiplash type mechanisms of injury in causing concussion.
Known as the ‘Whiplash Effect’, this mechanism of injury occurs when a rapid front-to-back or side-to-side snap takes place when the body or head is moved by a heavy force. The muscles of the neck function to support the head, and to control its movement. When a front-to-back, side-to-side, or rotational force is applied to the head or body that is stronger than the tensile or eccentric strength of the neck muscles, they lose their ability to decelerate, and control the movement of the head. While this is happening, the brain, anchored in the back by the brain stem, is moving inside the skull at a different speed from the rest of the head. When the head stops moving rapidly, as when it makes contact with the ice, field, fist, shoulder pad etc., it can shift causing strain on the brain stem and spinal cord, or result in the brain making contact with the inside of the skull. It is this contact or shearing that causes the tissue damage and impaired brain function and concussion injury.
PTS advocates that any athlete diagnosed with, or suspected of having a sport concussion injury follow a graduated Return-to-Sport protocol.
The general protocol includes 6 steps, where the athlete graduates step to step when symptom-free.
PTS stresses that individual consideration be given with every athlete and that all Return-to-Sport programs are authorized with the expressed consent of a supervising team Doctor or Doctor with experience with Concussion Injury.

PTS Sport Concussion Management Series:
Return-to-Sport Management Download Here
Concussion Pathophysiology
Recent research reveals that in both animals and humans, brain trauma, can alter the brain's physiology for hours to weeks, setting into motion a variety of pathological events
PTS Sport Concussion Management Series:
Concussion Pathophysiology Download Here
Concussion Resource Download Centre Concussion Education Groups  
Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: From the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport, Zurich, Nov. 2008. Download Here
A prospective study of concussion education in 2 junior ice hockey teams (The Hockey Education Project). Echlin et al. 2010. Neurosurg Focus (29)5:E6.Download Here

Resources from the United States Centre for Disease Control

Concussion Training for Coaches Download Here.

Heads Up - Concussion Quiz for Coaches Download Here.

Parent / Athlete Concussion Information Sheet Download Here.
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